vSUI Contract Infrastructure

Decentralization (SIP6)

The new Native Pool module for SUI Liquid Staking aims to increase the decentralization of staking and replace intermediary approaches.

It uses request_add_stake_non_entry and request_withdraw_stake_non_entry methods of sui_system to stake the user’s SUI tokens and receive StakedSui that we store inside the contract.

We diversify StakedSui using different validators for staking and unstaking. Our operator assigns different priority levels to the validators in the set, and the contract stakes only with the validator that holds the highest priority and unstakes starting with the validator that holds the lowest priority.


The SUI Staking mechanics doesn’t allow returning the user their funds if they requested an unstake the same epoch they staked while the funds are still in the pending state. Our goal is to fulfill unstake requests as soon as possible while avoiding big plunges in the APR that happen because such requests can only be served by stakes (StakedSUI) actively accruing rewards.


To solve this problem, we have implemented the following mechanics:

  • Delayed unstake managed via UnstakeTicket for requests that take up the whole active SUI balance.

  • Fee that lowers the financial appeal of unstake requests that are fulfilled within the current epoch.

Technical Details

Main Objects:

  • OwnerCap — capability to call functions with the owner role access level.

  • OperatorCap — capability to call functions with the operator role access level.

  • Vault — object that stores the staking queue for a specific validator; the queue is freed in the FIFO order in the unstake process.

  • ValidatorSet — object that stores validators sorted by their priority level and their Vaults.

  • NativePool — main pool object that stores ValidatorSet and main data for the pool operations.

  • Metadata<CERT> — stores the total supply of vSUI.


Some methods depends on Sui system objects:

  • SuiSystemState0x5 (addresses)

  • Clock0x6 (addresses)

Staking Process

stake(NativePool, Metadata<CERT>, SuiSystemState, Coin<SUI>)

The main entry point for the user. Exchanges SUI to CERT (vSUI), adds SUI to the pool in the pending state and if pending balance is greater than 1SUI tries to stake all of it to a validator that holds the highest priority, otherwise the tokens remain in the pool. The stake amount must be greater or equal to native_pool::min_stake. The user begins receiving their rewards instantly, however the stake itself will start earning since next epoch after it has been staked.



After an epoch change, our backend queries for the total amount of accrued rewards for all StakedSUI, and stores the resulting sum to the contract. As a result of this action, ratio gets updated by the formula: shares_supply / (total_staked + (total_rewards - collected_rewards) - tickets_supply) where shares_supply is CERT_METADATA::total_supply , total_staked is the value from the staking event and total_staked = total_rewards - collected_rewards, total_rewards is NATIVE_POOL:total_rewards , collected_rewards is NATIVE_POOL::collected_rewards , tickes_supply is the number of all unburned UnstakeTickets.

Unstaking Process

Unstaking process involves 2 stages, that can be performed individually or in a single function call.

First stage

mint_ticket(NativePool, Metadata<CERT>, Coin<CERT>)

Burns vSUI tokens (which stops rewards generation for the staker) and mints UnstakeTicket object, that allows it’s owner to receive SUI initial funds and rewards. In most cases user can unstake in a single function call unstake(NativePool, Metadata<CERT>, SuiSystemState, Coin<CERT>) that includes both ticket minting and burning, if total value of all unstake tickets > total_active_stake.


An UnstakeTicket is a non-transferrable object that gives the right to its owner to unstake a specified amount of SUI since a certain epoch. An UnstakeTicket contains the following fields:

  • value (uint64): The amount of SUI to unstake. When burning an UnstakeTicket, the user receives value - unstake_fee where value is calculated by the vSUI-to-SUI exchange rate from the day the UnstakeTicket was created.

  • unstake_fee (uint64): A fee the protocol deducts during the second unstake stage if the total value of all minted UnstakeTickets for the last 2 SUI Chain epochs is higher than unstake_fee_threshold % from the total_staked (sum of all user stakes). unstake_fee is a fixed percentage N% (0.05% by default) and is calculated by the following formula: unstake_fee = value * base_unstake_fee.

  • epoch (uint64): Number of SUI Chain epoch since a ticket can be burned (User is free to burn their ticket any epoch later). It is the current epoch by default, however, if total value of all unstake tickets > total_active_stake, then epoch = current_epoch + 1, where total_active_stake = sum of all stakes up to the current epoch - sum of all burned unstake tickets, incl. current epoch. In other words, if all StakedSUI on validators is in the “pending” state, then the user has to wait until the next epoch when it becomes “active” and available for unstake.



Second Stage

The second stage is initiated by calling the burn_ticket(NativePool, SuiSystemState, UnstakeTicket) method, which sends the SUI value defined in the UnstakeTicket to the user. To obtain the value, the protocol unstakes funds the following way:

  1. Starting from the validator that holds the lowest priority.

  2. Within the validator, in a queue starting from the oldest stake (StakedSUI) through the newest.

  3. For each StakedSUI that accrued rewards, the contract deducts a base_reward_fee % from the rewards and adds it to the NativePool::collectable_fee variable for the owner to collect later.

When the value of the UnstakeTicket is reached, the contract stops unstaking funds and sends the user their SUI (value - unstake_fee).

A surplus can remain — the contract can unstake an amount of SUI greater than the value. It can happen, as StakedSUI is an object containing >= 1 SUI, which is not only the body of the stake, but also the accrued staking rewards, and the final StakedSUI in the queue can have more funds than needed to cover the value. The surplus is added to the pending contract balance, waiting to be staked when >=1 SUI.


Unstaking Corner Cases

  1. If the user tries to unstake in the current epoch an amount bigger than the one that was staked before the beginning of it, such unstake is impossible to pay out instantly. The user will have to wait till the end of the current epoch to get their tokens. A telling example can be: previous epoch stakes are 100K (TVL 100K), current epoch stakes are 200K, the user unstakes 150K in the current epoch (150% of the previous epoch TVL). From our practice, however, such cases arise during QA, and the users must never see them in the production environment.

  2. If the user makes multiple stake/unstake transactions, it can significantly decrease the APR, as each transaction decreases the active TVL that gets rewards and increases the passive TVL that will get rewards only in 2 epochs. Although this malicious user will not gain any profit and, in fact, will pay a fee for each transaction, this behavior still affects all users of the protocol. To discourage attacks of this kind, we take a small fee that is nearly equal to the APR decrease if unstakes in the current epoch have used more than 10% of the TVL in the previous epoch.

To Sum Up:

  1. Unstakes lower than the unstake_fee_threshold are instant and bear no fee (see UnstakeTicket above).

  2. Unstakes higher than the unstake_fee_threshold are instant and bear the unstake_fee, which is included in the body of unstaked amount, i.e., the user gets value - unstake_fee.

  3. Unstakes as big as or higher than the active part of the pool TVL make the epoch value in the UnstakeTicket equal to current_epoch + 1.

Updating Validators

Method: update_validators(NativePool, vector<address>, vector<u64>, OperatorCap)

Our backend observes the network state and prioritizes validators based on their APY, reputation and already staked amount(if staked more than 20% TVL validator excluded from the list). The contract makes decision based on the priority: stake with the validator that holds the highest priority, unstake starting with the validator that holds the lowest priority.

IMPORTANT: to apply priority, see Sorting validators.


If we want to send all new stakes to the validator 0xba4d20899c7fd438d50b2de2486d08e03f34beb78a679142629a6baacb88b013 and unstake from the validator 0x3d618b03660f4e8b4ec99c52af08a814f5248154937782d22b5a8f2e44ba15fc and 0x9c4155f9e901324198fc9c737e15e6b14da5b9d2f38243213f115a7d45f3d048, then the address who owns the Operator Cap should make a call with this 3 validators addresses and prioritize them in this way: [3,1,2]. As a result, 0xba4d will take the first place, and contract will stake with it. The last one at the bottom of queue, 0x3d61, will be the first candidate for unstakes.

Zero Priority

If our backend sets a validator 0 priority, it means we want to prune its state from the module. Upon the last user unstake form this validator, we remove it from the validator_set module.

Sorting Validators

Method: sort_validators(NativePool)

Sorts the validators in the list by priority. For priority details, see the Update Validators method description above.


Volo Impact

Role: Operator

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